What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test – The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins present in the liquid part of the blood. These are albumin and globulin.

If the total protein is abnormal, further testing will need to be done to find the exact cause of the problem.

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

Normal value ranges may vary slightly between different laboratories. Talk to your provider about what your specific test results mean.

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The example above shows a typical measurement for the results of these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different samples.

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A.D.A.M., Inc. Information prepared by UCSF Health regarding tests and test results may not directly match information provided by UCSF Health. Please discuss any questions or concerns you have with your doctor. Total protein (TP) is a measure of the protein found in plasma (the liquid part of blood). Most plasma proteins are produced by the liver (Sero, 2015).

If a plasma sample is used to obtain a TP result, it will contain fibrinogen values. However, if a serum sample is used, the TP result will be slightly lower because fibrinogen is removed during the clotting process. From a patient care perspective, this difference is too small to make significant changes in case management. It is only important that you are aware of this difference and remember whether the TP result is based on a serum or plasma sample.

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Serum is obtained when a blood sample is placed in a simple test tube. The absence of anticoagulant means that the blood clots, separating the serum from the clumps of blood cells, platelets and fibrinogen in the sample tube. The sample can be centrifuged to push the clot to the bottom of the container and facilitate the extraction of serum for testing without disturbing the clot and contaminating the sample with it.

If the blood is collected in a container with an anticoagulant such as lithium heparin, the fibrinogen will remain suspended in the plasma. No clots will form and the sample will need to be centrifuged to separate the plasma from the blood cells. The exception is also blood: Blood cells of this type are so dense that they sink to the bottom of the test tube if it is allowed to sit on a rack before being tested.

The sample on the left is normal equine plasma (dark yellow), while the sample on the right is hemolysed (red).

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

Plasma protein analyzes can be performed with a refractometer or an automated biochemistry analyzer. Total plasma protein can be measured in plasma using a capillary tube or sample container that has been centrifuged. If you​​​​​​are using a capillary tube, gently lift between the fingers above the surface of the buffy coat and red cells. Place the plasma on the stage of the clinical refractometer and look through the eyepiece to read the results.

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Depending on the model of your refractometer, you will use the scale called the column TP, SP or TS (usually the right). See the example below. The result is reported in g/dL (g/100ml). For convenience, the total protein range can be printed on the lid of the refractometer case. Compare results with the normal reference range for that species. Sometimes the normal reference ranges for total protein are given in g/l, so if the result is in g/dl, you need to multiply it by 10 to convert g/dl to g/l (one deciliter is 100ml , so it is 1 ./10 liters per 1000 ml).

Note: I prefer to use the term total protein (TP) as it can refer to results obtained from a serum or plasma sample (see terminology section above). However, some equipment may be labeled SP (whey protein) or TS (total solids), although serum or plasma may be used to obtain the reading. It is important to carefully check equipment and samples and record results accurately and completely to avoid confusion.

Causes of low plasma protein levels (hypoproteinemia): malnutrition/starvation, passive transfusion failure (in infants), overhydration, heart failure (with edema), severe liver or kidney disease, intestinal disorders, anemia, irritation

In this example, the total protein is read from the left-hand scale (labeled S.P.). The result is 6.6 g/dL (g/100 mL). A total protein test is a urine or blood test that measures the levels of protein in the body. Age, diet, and other factors can affect protein levels, but high or low levels can also be a sign of inflammation, liver disease, and other health conditions.

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Having too much or too little protein can lead to unintended weight loss, fatigue or inflammatory disease. The total protein test can help diagnose liver and kidney disease, among other conditions.

In this article, we will discuss the total protein test, how to interpret the results, and what normal or abnormal protein levels can mean.

Proteins serve as the building blocks of many organs, hormones and enzymes. Protein is essential for overall health, which is why routine health checks often include a total protein test.

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

The total protein test measures the total amount of protein present in body fluids. The test checks for protein in the liquid part of your urine or blood, which doctors call serum.

What Does Low Globulin Mean?

A total serum protein test measures the amount of albumin and globulin present in the serum portion of the blood:

The kidneys filter albumin and other proteins from the blood, so urine contains small amounts of protein.

But urinary tract problems, such as chronic kidney disease, can cause large amounts of protein in the urine.

Blood serum contains 6 to 8 grams per deciliter (g/dL). Of this, albumin accounts for 3.5 to 5.0 g/dl and the rest is total globulin. These limits may vary between different laboratories.

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Normally, a person’s body excretes less than 150 milligrams (mg) of total protein and less than 20 mg of albumin through their urine every 24 hours.

High or low levels of serum or urine protein are not always indicative of a chronic medical condition. Everyday factors that can affect a person’s protein level include:

If a person is pregnant, they should check their urine for signs of proteinuria, which is an excess of protein in the urine.

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

Protein excretion in the urine of more than 300 mg of protein per day can indicate preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication.

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A doctor may order a total serum protein test during a routine physical exam as part of a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP).

Doctors can also use a total protein test to diagnose a variety of diseases that affect protein levels.

People who have medical conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may have a total protein test during follow-up visits to monitor their recovery during treatment.

A doctor will review the total serum protein test results along with other test results to help diagnose medical conditions. They will analyze the results in relation to a person’s total CMP.

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Along with serum total protein levels, a laboratory can calculate the ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G) in the bloodstream. This is because some conditions affect the amount of albumin or globulin in the blood.

A low A/G ratio can be caused by overproduction of globulin, underproduction of albumin, or albumin deficiency, which may indicate the following:

A healthcare professional administers the total protein test in a clinic or other healthcare facility. Unless otherwise noted, you do not need to make any special preparations before taking the test.

What Does Total Protein Mean In A Blood Test

A total serum protein test involves taking a blood sample from a vein in your arm.

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A healthcare provider or pick will tie a rubber band around your upper arm to make it easier to find the vein. After the entrance site is drained, they will insert the needle into the vein. Blood from the vein will pass through the needle and into the collection tube.

Once the healthcare provider has collected enough blood, they will remove the needle and rubber band from your arm, apply pressure to the injection site, and cover the wound with a bandage.

A urine total protein test involves collecting a urine sample. People can do this at home or in a healthcare facility.

A healthcare professional can perform a total protein test during a routine health check. The total protein test measures the amount of protein in your blood serum or urine.

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The total protein test can detect normal or abnormal protein levels, which can help diagnose medical conditions, such as kidney and liver disease.

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