How Much Does The African Elephant Weigh – African elephants are members of the phylum Loxodonta, which consists of two species of living elephant, the African bush elephant (L. africana) and the lesser African forest elephant (L. cyclotis). Both are gray social herbivores, but differ in the size and color of the teeth and the size and shape of the ears and skull.
Both species are considered threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List; From 2021, bush elephants will be considered endangered and forest elephants will be considered endangered They are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and poaching for the illegal ivory trade is also a threat in many countries in the region.
How Much Does The African Elephant Weigh
Loxodonta is one of the two widespread genera of the elephant family The name refers to the pill-shaped starch on their molar teeth Fossil remains of Loxodonta species have been excavated in Africa, dating back to the Middle Pliocene.
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Comparison of bush (left) and forest (right) elephant skulls in frontal view Note the short and broad head of L. cyclotis with a concave rather than convex forehead
The first scientific description of the African elephant was written in 1797 by Johann Friedrich Blumbach, who proposed the scientific name Eliphas africanus.
Loxodonta was proposed as the Greek name for the African elephant by Frédéric Cuvier in 1825.
Elephas (Loxodonta) cyclotis was proposed in 1900 by Paul Machsey, who described three zoological specimens of African elephants from Cameroon whose skulls differed from elephant skulls collected elsewhere in Africa.
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In 1936, Glover Morrill considered the elephant to be a distinct species and called it the “jungle elephant”;
Morphological and genetic analyzes have subsequently provided evidence for species-level differences between African bush elephants and African forest elephants.
In 1907, Richard Lydecker proposed six subspecies of African elephants based on the different sizes and shapes of their ears.
A third species, the West African elephant, has also been proposed but requires confirmation This line is believed to have diverged from the others for 2.4 million years
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The following extinct African elephants were described from fossil remains in the late 18th and 21st centuries:
Analysis of nuclear DNA sequences suggests that genetic divergence between African forest elephants and wild elephants began 2.6 – 5.6 million years ago. The divergence between Asian elephants and woolly mammoths is estimated to be 2.5 – 5.4 million years ago, strongly supporting their status as distinct species. The African forest elephant was found to have a high level of genetic diversity, possibly reflecting the phased fragmentation of its habitat during the Pleistocene climate change.
The flow between the two species of African elephant was investigated at 21 locations The analysis showed that many African bush elephants carried mitochondrial DNA from African forest elephants, indicating that they hybridized in the savanna-forest transition area in ancient times.
DNA from the European straight elephant (Palaeoloxodon anticus) shows that the extinct elephant Goose Palaeoloxodon is related to the African elephant in the mitochondrial genome and more than 30% of the nuclear genome. P. antiquus is a genus more closely related to the African forest elephant than to the African forest elephant
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African elephants have gray folded skin up to 30 mm (1.2 in) thick, covered with short, brushy dark brown to black hair. Small tactile hairs grow on the trunk, which have two finger-like processes at their tips, while Asian elephants have only one.
Their large ears help reduce body heat; Folding them up creates air circulation and exposes the inside of the ear, where large blood vessels reduce heat in hot weather. The stem is a Priscilla extension of her upper lip and nose This highly sensitive organ is innervated primarily by the trigeminal nerve and is believed to be controlled by approximately 40,000-60,000 muscles. Because of this muscle structure, the trunk is so strong that elephants use it to lift 3% of their body weight They use it for smell, touch, feed, drink, dust, sound, charge, defense and attack.
Both male and female African elephants have tusks that grow from thin teeth called tusks, which are replaced by tusks when the calf is about a year old. Antlers contain detin, which forms small diamond-shaped structures in the center of the antler, which become larger at its periphery.
Tussi are primarily used to root and pluck from trees for food, fight with each other during mating season, and defend against predators. Tusks can weigh 23–45 kg (51–99 lb) and be 1.5–2.4 m (5–8 ft) in length. They tend to bend forward and grow into elephant life
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Elephants have four molars; Each weighs about 5 kg (11 lb) and is about 30 cm (12 in) long. As the front pair weakens and wears away, the back pair moves forward and two new molars appear in the back of the mouth. Elephants change their teeth four to six times in their lifetime At about 40 to 60 years of age, the elephant loses its last molar and probably dies of starvation, a common cause of death. African elephants have a total of 24 teeth, six in each quadrant of the jaw The enamel plate of molars is smaller than that of Asian elephants
The African bush elephant is the largest land animal Cows are 2.2–2.6 m (7.2–8.5 ft) at the shoulder and weigh 2,160–3,232 kg (4,762–7,125 lb), while bulls are 3.2–4 m (10–13 ft). tall and weighs 4,700–6,048 kg (10,362–13,334 lb).
The largest recorded individual was 3.96 m (13.0 ft) at the shoulder and weighed 10,400 kg (22,900 lb).
The African forest elephant is small, weighing 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) and standing 1.8–2.4 meters (5 ft 11 in – 7 ft 10 in) at the shoulder in females and 2.4–3 meters (7 ft 10 in – 9 ft 10 in) in males.
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African elephants are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, where they live in the Sahelian bush and arid regions, tropical rainforests, mopane and mimbo forests. African forest elephant populations are found only in central Africa
Elephants are animals with the shortest sleep periods, especially African elephants Their average sleep is found to be only 2 hours in a 24 hour cycle
Both species of African elephant live in family units consisting of several adult cows, their daughters, and their subadult sons. Each family unit is headed by an adult cow, known as the matric
Groups of African forest elephants are less cohesive than groups of African bush elephants, probably due to a lack of predators.
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When separate families come together, they form kinship or bond groups After childhood, male elephants bond with other males While females are the most active members of African elephant groups, both male and female elephants are able to distinguish between hundreds of low-frequency infrasonic calls to communicate and recognize each other.
Bull It was believed to be a solitary animal that became independent after reaching adulthood New research shows that bulls retain ecological knowledge for herds, making it easier to survive while foraging for food and water, which also suits the young bulls associated with them. Bulls only return to the herd to rest or socialize; They do not provide pre-paternal care to their young, but rather take on a paternal role to show dominance over the younger bulls.
While feeding, African elephants use their trunks to pull leaves and tusks to break branches, which can cause extensive leaf damage.
The African elephant’s large size and hindquarters also allow for the digestion of various plant parts, such as fibrous stems, trees, and roots.
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They have a very large and highly sophisticated neocortex, a trait they share with humans, monkeys and many species of dolphins. They are among the most intelligent species in the world At just over 5 kg (11 lb), the elephant’s brain is larger than that of any other animal. The elephant brain is similar in structure and complexity to the human brain; The elephant’s cortex has as many neurons as the human brain.
Elephants exhibit a variety of behaviors, including mourning, learning, imitation, art, play, humor, altruism, tool use, compassion, cooperation,
All these behaviors point to a highly intelligent species similar to cetaceans
African elephants are most fertile between 25 and 45 years of age Calves are born after a gestation period of about two years
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Calves are cared for by their mother and other young females in the group, known as allomothering.
African elephants exhibit sexual dimorphism in weight and shoulder height until the age of 20 years due to the rapid and rapid growth of males. By age 25, males are twice as likely as females; However, both sexes continue to grow throughout life
And are in estrus for about 2 to 7 days They do not come together at the same time; However, they are less likely to reproduce during drought than when water is abundant An elephant’s gestation period is 22 months
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