How Much Does An Average Brain Weigh – This article is about the brain of all species, including humans. For more information on the human brain, see Human Brain. For other definitions, see Brain (disambiguation) and Brain (disambiguation).
The brain is the main organ of the nervous system of all vertebrates and invertebrates. It is located in the head, usually near organs such as vision. It is the most complex organ in the vertebrate body. There are approximately 14 to 16 billion neurons in the human cerebral cortex.
How Much Does An Average Brain Weigh
Each neuron is connected to several thousand other neurons by synapses. These neurons are usually connected to each other by long fibers called axons, which carry signal impulses called effectors to distant parts of the brain or body, which target cell-specific receptors.
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Physiologically, the brain controls the rest of the body. They affect the rest of the body by increasing muscle activity and stimulating the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized management allows a rapid and coordinated response to environmental changes. Some basic response types, such as reflexes, can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but complex, goal-directed behavior control based on complex input requires information integration capabilities of the brain. central.
The operations of individual brain cells are now explained in detail, but how they interact with the millions remains unresolved.
Vertical models of modern neurobiology consider the brain as a biological computer, the mechanism of which is very different from a digital computer, but it receives information from the surrounding world, stores it and processes it in different ways.
This article compares brain characteristics across a range of animal species, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. It deals with the human brain as it shares characteristics of other brains. The differences between the human brain and other brains are discussed in the article on the human brain. Some topics that could be covered here are more so because there is so much more to say about them in the human context. The most important thing to consider in an article about the human brain is brain disease and the effects of brain injury.
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A cross section of a rat olfactory bulb stained two different ways at the same time: one stain shows neuronal cell bodies and the other shows receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA.
The shape and size of the brain vary greatly between species, and common characteristics are difficult to identify.
However, certain principles of brain architecture apply to a wide range of species.
The easiest way to obtain information about brain anatomy is visual inspection, but many sophisticated methods have been developed. Brain tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixatives and dissected to examine the interior. Visually, the inner part of the brain is made up of areas called gray matter, which are dark in color, separated by areas of white matter, which are light in color. Additional information can be obtained by staining slices of brain tissue with various chemicals that reveal areas of high contractility of certain types of molecules. You can also use a microscope to study the microstructure of brain tissue and see the pattern of connections from one area of the brain to another.
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Neurons generate electrical signals that travel along their axons. When an electrical impulse hits a junction called a synapse, it causes the release of a chemical neurotransmitter that binds to receptors on other cells, changing their electrical activity.
The brain of all species is primarily made up of two major classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. Glial cells (also called glia or neuroglia) come in many forms and perform several important functions, including structural support, metabolic support, differentiation, and developmental control. Neurons are generally considered the most important cells in the brain.
What is unique with neurons is their ability to transmit SD signals to specific target cells over long distances.
They send these signals through an axon, a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and usually has many branches to other regions, sometimes near, sometimes to distant parts of the brain or body. The size of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex is enlarged so that its cell body becomes the size of a human body, its axon will also be enlarged than this cable . the diameter is a few centimeters, the length is more than one kilometer.
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These axons send signals in the form of electrochemical impulses called action potentials, which last less than a thousandth of a second and travel along the axon at a speed of 1 to 100 meters per second. Some neurons fire 10 to 100 spikes per second, often in irregular patterns; other neurons are mostly silent but occasionally fire vessels.
Axons send signals to other neurons through special connections called synapses. A single axon can establish several thousand synaptic connections with other cells.
When the effector vessel traveling along the axon reaches the synapse, it causes the release of a chemical called a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules on the membrane of the target cell.
The main function of the brain is communication between cells, and synapses are the points where communication occurs. It is estimated that the human brain has approximately 100 trillion synapses;
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The functions of these synapses are very diverse: some are excitatory (excitatory target cells); others prohibit; others work by activating second messenger systems that alter the internal chemistry of their target cells in complex ways.
A large number of synapses are dynamically modified; that is, capable of changing intensity in a manner controlled by the signal patterns passing through them. It is widely believed that activity-dependent synapse change is the main mechanism of learning and memory in the brain.
Most of the space in the brain is taken up by axons, which are often bundled together in bundles called nerve fibers. A myelinated axon is wrapped in a fatty insulating sheath of myelin, which serves to greatly increase the speed of signal propagation. (There are also unmyelinated axons). Myelin is white, and areas of the brain filled with only nerve fibers appear as light-colored white matter, in contrast to the dark gray matter that marks highly dystrophic areas of the neuronal cell body.
Nerve cord with segmental fibers, protruding in the form of a ‘brain’ in the nervous system of a bipedal Herician animal.
Your Amazing Brain
), all living multicellular animals are bipedal, i.e. animals with a bilaterally symmetrical body shape (i.e. the left and right sides are mirror images of one of the ‘other).
All Diptera are thought to be descended from a common ancestor that appeared between 700 and 650 million years ago, at the end of the cryogenic period, and this common ancestor would have been a simple segmented tube-worm-like body.
At the schematic level, this basic worm form can be seen in the body architecture and nervous system of all modern biterians, including vertebrates.
The fundal bipartite body shape is a tube with a hollow intestinal cavity running from the mouth to the anus and a nerve cord with a large opening (ganglion) for each part of the body, with a particularly large ganglion called the cerebrum at the Before. In some species the brain is small and simple, like the nematode worm; in other species, including vertebrates, it is the most complex organ in the body.
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Some species of worms, such as lizards, also have a large ganglion called the “tail brain” behind the nerve cord.
There are several extant species of biatarians without recognizable brains, including echinoderms and tunicates. Whether the presence of these brainless species indicates that early Bitherians were brainless, or that their ancestors evolved in a way that resulted in the destruction of pre-existing brain structures, is vague.
Fruit flies (Drosophila) have been widely studied to understand the role of Ges in brain development.
This category includes many species of tardigrades, arthropods, molluscs and worms. The diversity of body plans of invertebrates corresponds to an equal diversity of brain structures.
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Two groups of invertebrates have particularly complex brains: arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids, etc.) and cephalopods (octopuses, squids and similar molluscs).
The brain of arthropods and cephalopods originates from two parallel nerve cords that run through the animal’s body. Arthropods have a forebrain, a supraesophageal ganglion, which has three divisions, and large optic lobes behind each eye to process vision.
There are several types of invertebrates whose brains have been carefully studied due to the characteristics that compose it.
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