How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh – Brain Facts The adult brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 grams). The adult brain is about 2% of the total body weight. An elephant’s brain.

Presentation on theme: “Brain Facts An adult’s brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 grams). An adult’s brain is about 2% of total body weight. An elephant’s brain.”— Presentation transcript:

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

1 Brain Facts The adult brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 grams). The adult brain is about 2% of the total body weight. An elephant’s brain weighs about 6000 grams. A cat’s brain weighs about 30 grams. There are about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons in the human brain. An octopus brain has about 300 million neurons. The total surface area of ​​the cerebral cortex is about 2500 square centimeters (~ 2.5 ft2) The waking time record is attributed to Mrs. Maureen Weston. He was apparently awake for 449 hours (18 days, 17 hours) in a rocking chair. Fainting occurs 8-10 seconds after the blood supply to the brain is cut off. During early pregnancy, neurons grow at a rate of 250,000 neurons per minute. The brain of an adult human weighs 150 grams. The total volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is milliliters. Several milliliters of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are produced each day. Cerebrospinal fluid is usually clear and colorless. There are approximately 13,500,000 neurons in the human spinal cord. The human spine is 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women. A “typical” neuron has 1,000 to 10,000 synapses.

Inside The Brain

Axons carry impulses to cells. Axons carry impulses to the body’s organs. extends the entire distance to the organ that supplies the cell body is a nucleus usually located in the brain or a thin membrane that surrounds the spinal cord. The role of axons in the regeneration of neurons in the brain and There are no neurons in the spinal cord so the damage is permanent.

7 Myelin sheath insulates the neuron’s fatty structure formed by Schwann cells Nodes of Ranvier Gap between Schwann cells act as points along the neuron for hundreds of times more signals traveling along the surface of the axon. Generate signals that jump rapidly from node to node. . Allows the brain to communicate with the fingers in a few thousandths of a second. Isolation allows the nervous system to fine-tune the muscles. The reason a baby does not smile or move properly at birth is because the insulation of its nerve fibers is not fully developed. As babies develop isolation, they can smile and move with better coordination and precision.

Receive stimuli and send information to the brain Unipolar and bipolar motor (Efferent) carry signals from the brain to effector muscles Multipolar interneurons Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons. Found in the brain and spinal cord.

Electrical Synapse Chemical Synapse Synaptic button Synaptic cleft Plasma membrane Neurotransmitter Gap junction Cardiac cells, some smooth muscles

Nacnic Anatomical Posters

Resting MP-only Na+ channels diffuse slowly. No action potential yet Na+/K+ active transport pump Embedded in plasma membrane Pumps Na+ out of cell (nerve) Pumps K+ into cell (nerve) Unequal ratio 3Na+:2K+ Some to maintain resting potential Imbalance must be maintained.

16 Chemical Synapse Synaptic button receives an action potential and Ca+2 channels open to allow extracellular Ca+2 to diffuse into the presynaptic cell Ca+2 stimulates neurotransmitter release from vesicles in the button Neurotransmitter diffuses into the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors. molecules in the postsynaptic neuron membrane causing the Na+ and K+ gates to open and create a local potential. The local potential moves toward the axon where the action potential initiates.

Resting potential (-70 mV) stimulates Na+ channels to open and let Na+ into the cell (depolarization) When the threshold potential (-59mV) is reached, more Na+ enters, the membrane depolarizes more. At action potential peak, Na+ gate closes (+ 30 mV ) K+ gate opens, K+ diffuses in (repolarization) Brief period of hyperpolarization (high K+ flux), with ions at rest Membrane potential is restored

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

A stimulus must have a certain minimum intensity for a neuron to fire – this is the neuron’s threshold. Should be pretty open. Increasing the stimulus above threshold does not elicit a large response – it is all or nothing. If all stimuli above threshold cause neurons to fire, how can we distinguish between different stimuli? Temporal summation – frequency of stimulation – neurons fire more or less often. Hot objects send less frequent impulses to a local pool of the brain – an excitatory zone – more neurons fire at different thresholds – not all neurons have the same threshold. A hot object may activate only a few neurons, while a hot object overstimulates many neurons and causes them to fire.

What Happens To The Brain In Alzheimer’s Disease?

Classification by function and chemical structure Stimulation vs. Inhibitory activity is determined by postsynaptic receptors of the acetylcholine (Ach) amine neuropeptide type.

Acetylcholine is in a class of its own Made from the junction of acetate and choline with kinetic effects. Muscles, glands Found in many parts of the brain Stimulation or inhibition At NM junctions involved in memory. Low Ach causes Myasthenia Gravis. a nerve cannot contract the muscle and make the muscle work. Weakness Recessive disorders

Synthesis from amino acids found in different parts of the brain affects learning, emotions, motor control neurotransmitters serotonin histamine catecholamine dopamine adrenaline norepinephrine.

Most inhibiting mood, emotions, sleep-related low serotonin depression or anxiety disorders cause serotonin and or norepinephrine. Antidepressant/anti-anxiety drugs (SSRIs) such as Effexor, Prozac, and Zoloft make more of this neurotransmitter available to the brain. LSD binds to serotonin receptors and blocks the inhibitory effects that lead to hallucinations (acid trip).

How Gaming Affects The Brain

Blocks most emotions, regulates body temperature, water balance Low dopamine (& norepinephrine) in ADHD has been linked to Parkinson’s disease NM joints leading to seizures Treatment with a drug called L-dopa which increases dopamine in the brain. Too Much L-dopa Can Cause Schizophrenia-like Symptoms High levels of dopamine have been linked to incurable schizophrenic thought disorder, but drug treatment often allows the disease to be controlled. Medicines used to treat schizophrenia, such as thorazine, haldol, and clozarel, deliver less dopamine to the brain.

Blockers often work by blocking neurotransmitter receptor sites in the brain, like opiates, to stop pain. Heroin, codeine and morphine are chemically similar to endorphins and have similar effects.

28 Myomas Glioma – a common type of brain tumor that is usually benign but can still be fatal Glioblastoma multiforme – a highly malignant form of astrocytoma

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

Tough white fibrous tissue Arachnoid membrane Middle layer Pia Mater Smooth, inner layer of the arachnoid tissue (attachs the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord) Contains transparent blood vessels

Science Backed Ways To Keep Your Brain Healthy And Active

Between the dura mater and the epithelium of the brain and spinal cord is a fatty support pad. Subspace Between dura mater and choroid membrane Lubricating serous fluid Subarachnoid space Between arachnoid and pia mater consists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Vertically to separate the two hemispheres. Vertebral space. Preparation interval…………………………………………… ………………………………………… ….. tea…. is.

Viral, bacterial or other micro-organism infections can also be caused by certain medicines or other diseases. potentially fatal due to proximity to encephalitis; Therefore, this is a medical emergency Headache and neck stiffness Fever, confusion or altered consciousness Inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud sounds (phonophobia). If a rash is present, it may indicate a specific cause of meningitis (meningococcal bacteria).

Diagnosed with cerebrospinal fluid, it is treated promptly with antibiotics and sometimes antivirals. In some cases, corticosteroids are also used to prevent complications from overactive inflammation. Serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus and cognitive deficits can occur, especially if not treated immediately. Some forms of meningitis can be prevented by vaccination.

Chocolate Human Brains

CSF is monitored by reservoirs of fluid flowing through the brain and in the cavities and blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord to detect changes in the internal environment. The average adult contains 140 ml of CSF.

Sometimes the CSF drainage channel is blocked in unborn babies. Fluid builds up and the pressure causes the brain to expand like a balloon. Diseases that cause very large heads and developmental disabilities in children (spinalgia, brain tumors, blood clots) Possible coma or death

Dorsal nerve roots extending from foramen magnum to L1 reflex center carry sensory information to spinal cord Ventral nerve roots carry motor information from inner spinal cord – gray matter Spinal nerves in s.c. One mixed nerve on each side of the s.c., where the dorsal and ventral nerves. roots meet

How Much Does An Adult Brain Weigh

Interneurons consist of cell bodies and motor neurons Spinal reflex center Located here Sensation in, movement out White matter consists of axons surrounding gray matter

The Ultimate Guide To Improving Brain Health And Mental Clarity

The lower part of the brainstem connects the cerebrum to the SC. Foramen magnum just above reticular formation – controls arousal, sleep (impaired=coma) [reticular activating system] breathing, heart rate

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