How Much Does A Plastic Bottle Cap Weigh – The impact of green HR management on environmental performance in small construction firms: the role of green innovation
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How Much Does A Plastic Bottle Cap Weigh
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Received: November 17, 2020 / Revised: December 7, 2020 / Accepted: December 10, 2020 / Published: December 11, 2020
In line with efforts to create a circular economy for plastics, recent EU legislation promotes the recycling of plastic bottles with separate collection targets and recycling obligations. Additionally, specific design requirements have been introduced for bottled and beverage containers. These covers are usually made from polyethylene or polypropylene and often contain additives such as anti-slip and antistatic properties. Bottle bottle recycles (BCRs) and special design products were analyzed for their composition by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and high performance liquid chromatography. Their composition was found to be interesting because of the polyolefins cross, which shows the types of cosmetics in the direct market. The legacy glide agent properties that originated from the first stage of the application were identified and quantified in the recycling of commercial storage and prototypes. This shows the possibility of implementing a better product design strategy for recycling, not just to respond to the need to renew plastic bottle packaging. By considering more options in polymer resin production and limits, more homogeneous waste streams can be obtained from the recycling of plastic bottles, allowing for more challenging recycling applications.
Environmental economics; circuit design; EU policy; older additions; engine; plastic bottle cap; polyethylene; polypropylene; instructions on single-use plastics; sliding agent
The concept of a circular plastic economy is gaining momentum [1, 2, 3, 4] as national [5, 6], regional  and global [8, 9] plastic flows and stocks, and the environmental burden [10, 11], has evolved. In particular, plastic packaging [3, 5] focuses on solving the transition from line to circle. Packaging is the main component of single-use plastics  and the largest group of different components of post-consumer plastic waste [5, 13].
The Cupanion Bottle
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles are a good example of a specific post-consumer plastic waste suitable for efficient mechanical recycling . PET bottle recycling programs and processes have developed to a large scale, allowing the recovery and reuse of raw materials in new food contact applications . Every year, people produce one hundred billion plastic bottles . With a proper packaging system, these bottles can be recycled into new bottles (bottle-to-bottle) . Additionally, bottles can be recycled in an open loop for the textile industry (bottle to fiber)  or for thermoforming of paper products (bottle to paper) . Therefore, there are many ways of recycling PET bottles, but there does not seem to be a great way to recycle bottles that are separated from PET during recycling (see Figure 1).
However, corks represent a large stream and often end up in the environment . Growth forecasts for the major beverage industries containing water such as bottled water  and especially plastic bottles [20, 21] are significant in pre-COVID-19 and it is reasonable to expect that the number of products will continue to increase [22, 23].
The latest EU regulations on single-use plastics, set out in Directive (EU) 2019/904 , deal with this sector with product requirements (Article 6), producer responsibility (Article 2) and (according to Article 8 (10) (10) lids and caps of composite beverage packages. In addition, plastic beverage bottles, including caps and lids, must be collected separately for recycling (Step 9). The goal of the collection of beverage bottles is 77% by 2025 and 90% by 2029 . The requirements of the target product require caps and lids to be integrated into the container during use to avoid waste. All manufacturers of bottle caps face the need to recycle machines if they want to be sold in the EU. Considering the juxtaposition of strict requirements for cosmetic products on the one hand and more product design requirements for lids on the other, attention should be paid to the understanding of the current system. Well, reaping the potential benefits of bottle cap reuse will become a reality in the near future through smart modifications that combine legally required changes with a design vision for the mouth.
Many examples of ways to reuse and recycle plastic bottles and their materials have been presented in the literature. The suitability of insulated bottles as an alternative building material has been investigated in the construction industry [25, 26, 27]. Post-consumer plastic bottle caps have been proposed to act as key components in a composite plastic sandwich system . Other small-scale and large-scale recycling strategies include the creation of biological models from used caps for chemical teaching purposes [29, 30] and the use of caps as an alternative fuel to low-grade lignite .
Rectangular Bottles # 64 Oz. 38mm Cap
Shrinking, cascading and recycling can certainly have their merits, especially when considering a limited area, and generally the most sustainable way to recycle end-of-life bottles can be found in regular machine recycling.
Polymer resins specifically formulated for beverage bottle caps and closures are available in the product portfolio of most polyolefin manufacturers. As an interesting but illustrative example, the analysis of relevant marketing documents and resin selection guidelines found on Borealis, Braskem, Dow, INEOS, LyondellBasell, SABIC, and TOTAL websites were used to create the overview shown at the top of Figure 2. and washing bottles or personal hygiene products were removed. High density polyethylene (PE-HD) and various types of polypropylene (PP) homopolymers and copolymers are used to make lids for beverage containers. There is progress towards PE-HD as a preferred material for the caps of pressurized beverages such as mineral water and carbonated beverages (CSD) [32, 33]. However, the melting point spectrum value (MFR), a common parameter for characterizing thermoplastic polymers such as PE and PP, falls by more than two orders of magnitude. The value of MFR can be less than 0.3 g / 10 min for high molecular weight PE-HD grade which is designed for high-weight products that withstand high pressure up to 30 g / 10 min for dairy caps or PE-HD targets in general. For PP caps, the range increases from 50g / 10min to higher for high-end caps that are suitable for long injection molding and fast cycle times.
Depending on the intended application, various factors are used to adjust the properties of polyolefin resins. These additives include controls and heat stabilizers such as phosphite. Antioxidants such as sterically inhibiting phenolic compounds provide stability over the useful life. Typically, a mixture of reinforcements is used for recycling and service life. Sometimes UV stabilizers can be included. These protect the polymer itself, as well as the light-producing components, from being damaged by sunlight. These caps may be required if it is intended for outdoor use (such as sports drinks) or when the area’s weather is inclement. All these reinforcing agents are internal components of the pure resin and are usually not mentioned in the specific section.
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