How Much Does A Gas Grill Propane Tank Weigh – 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is equipped with an overfill protection (OPD) valve as shown on the three-lobe flywheel.
Propane (/ˈ p roʊ peɪ n / ) is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but it can be compressed into a portable liquid. As a byproduct of natural gas processing and oil refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for domestic and industrial purposes, as well as in low-emission transportation. Discovered in 1857 by the French chemist Marcelin Berthelot and became commercially available in the United States in 1911. Propane belongs to the group of liquid petroleum gases (LP). Others include butane, propyl, butadiene, butyl, isobutyl, and mixtures thereof. Propane has a lower volumetric energy density but a higher gravimetric energy density and burns cleaner than gasoline and coal.
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Propane gas has become a popular choice for grills and portable stoves because its low boiling point of -42°C allows it to vaporize in pressurized (two-phase) liquid containers. Propane powers buses, forklifts, cars, outboard motors and ice makers, and is used for heating and cooking in RVs and RVs.
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Walter O. Snelling of the US Bureau of Mines isolated it as a volatile component of gasoline in 1910, starting the US propane industry. The instability of these lighter hydrocarbons made them known as “wild” due to the high vapor pressure of crude gasoline. On March 31, 1912, The New York Times reported on Snelling’s work with liquefied gas, saying that “a steel bottle could contain a strong gas to light an ordinary house for three weeks.”
It was at this time that Snelling, in collaboration with Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr, and Arthur Kerr, developed methods for liquefying liquid gases in gasoline refining. Together they founded the American Gasol Co., the first commercial propane marketer. By 1911, Snelling was producing relatively pure propane, and on March 25, 1913, his method of treating and producing liquefied gases received patent #1,056,845.
A special method of producing liquefied gas by compression was developed by Frank Peterson, and his patent was issued on July 2, 1912.
LPG production increased in the 1920s, with the first year of recorded production at 223,000 US gallons (840 m).
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). Important industrial developments of the 1930s included the introduction of railcar transport, smelting gas and the construction of local bottling plants. 1945 was the first year that annual sales of LPG reached one billion gallons. By 1947, 62% of all American homes were equipped with natural gas or propane for cooking.
In 1950, the Chicago Transit Authority ordered 1,000 propane buses, and by 1958 US sales reached 7 billion US gallons (26,000,000 m3).
) annually. In 2004, it was reported to be a growing $8-10 billion industry with over 15 billion US gallons (57,000,000 cubic meters)
The root “prop-” found in “propane” and the names of other three-carbon compounds comes from “propionic acid.”
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Propane is produced as a byproduct of two other processes, natural gas processing and oil refining. Natural gas processing involves removing butane, propane, and large amounts of ethane from the raw gas to prevent these volatiles from condensing in pipelines. In addition, oil refineries produce some propane as a byproduct of cracking oil into gasoline or fuel oil.
Propane supply cannot easily be adjusted to meet increased demand due to the byproducts of propane production. About 90% of propane in the US is produced domestically.
The United States imports about 10% of the propane it consumes each year, and about 70% comes from Canada via pipeline and rail. The remaining 30% of imported propane comes to the US from other sources by sea.
After being separated from crude oil, North American propane is stored in vast salt caverns. Examples include Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta; Mont Belvieu, Texas; and Conway, Kansas. These salt caves
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Propane flame pyrometry with thin filament velocity measurement. The hottest parts of the flame are located in a hollow, cone-shaped area near its base and point upward.
At normal pressure, it flows below the boiling point at -42 °C and solidifies below the melting point at -187.7 °C. Propane crystallizes in space group P2
The low space filling of 58.5% (at 90 K) due to poor molecular formation properties is the reason for the particularly low melting point.
Propane undergoes combustion reactions like other alkanes. In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide.
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When there is not enough oxygen for complete combustion, carbon monoxide, soot (carbon), or both are also produced:
Propane burns more intensely than fuel oil or diesel fuel because of its very high hydrogen content. The presence of C-C bonds, as well as propyl and butyl multiple bonds, produce organic exhaust gases in addition to carbon dioxide and water vapor during typical combustion. These connections also cause propane to burn with a visible flame.
The thermal energy of combustion of propane gas when all products return to their standard state, such as when water returns to its liquid state at standard temperature (known as higher calorific value), is (2,219.2 ± 0.5) kJ/mol or (50.33 ± 0.01) MJ/kg.
The temperature during combustion of propane gas where the products do not return to their standard state, such as when hot gases including water vapor leave the stack (known as lower calorific value) is -2043.455 kJ/mol.
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Net calorific value is the amount of heat available from the combustion of a substance when the products of combustion are released into the atmosphere; for example, heat from an open-chimney fireplace.
, approximately 1.5 times the density of air at the same temperature. The density of liquid propane at 25 °C (77 °F) is 0.493 g/cm
, which equals 4.11 pounds per US gallon or 493 g/L. Propane expands 1.5% at 10°F. Thus, liquid propane has a density of about 4.2 pounds per gallon (504 g/L) at 60 °F (15.6 °C).
Because the density of propane varies with temperature, this must be considered whenever the application involves safety or storage operations.
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The name “propane” comes from adding the chemical suffix -an to “prop (ionic acid)”, which in turn comes from the Greek pro “forward” and pion “fat”. This refers to propionic acid, which is the first in the order of fatty acids.
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Propane is a popular choice for grills and portable stoves because its low boiling point of −42 °C (−44 °F) causes vaporization as soon as it is released from a pressurized container. Therefore, no carburetor or other vaporizing device is required; a simple dosing nozzle is sufficient.
Blends of pure dry “isopropane” (R-290a) (isobutane/propane blends) and isobutane (R-600a) may be used as circulating refrigerant in compressor cooling equipment of suitable design. Compared to hydrofluorocarbons, propane has negligible ozone depletion potential and very low global warming potential (with a GWP of 0.072,
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13.9 times lower than the GWP of carbon dioxide) and can serve as a functional replacement for R-12, R-22, R-134a and other CFCs or CFCs in conventional stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems.
Because its global warming impact is significantly lower than that of current refrigerants, propane was selected as one of five replacement refrigerants approved by the EPA in 2015 for use in systems specifically designed to control its flammability.
Such substitution is generally prohibited or not recommended in automotive air conditioning systems on the grounds that the use of flammable hydrocarbons in systems originally designed to transport a nonflammable refrigerant presents a significant risk of fire or explosion.
Vdors and supporters of hydrocarbon refrigerants oppose such bans on the grounds that such incidents are very few compared to the number of hydrocarbon-filled vehicle air conditioning systems.
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Propane also plays an important role in self-refrigeration, as the energy source for a gas absorption refrigerator, and is often used for camping and recreational vehicles.
Because it can be easily transported, it is a popular fuel for home heating and backup power in sparsely populated areas where there are no gas pipelines. In June 2023, Stanford University researchers found that propane combustion produces detectable and repeatable levels of bze, raising indoor bze concentrations above health limits in some homes. The study also shows that gas and propane are the dominant source of bze produced during cooking.
In rural areas of North America, as well as in northern Australia, propane is used to heat livestock quarters, in grain dryers and other heat generators. If the grain is used for heating or drying, it is usually stored in a large, permanently located tank that is filled by a propane truck. Starting in 2014
), fill the large cylinders that are permanently installed on the premises or other service trucks will replace the empty ones
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